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Academic Requirements and Acceptable Alternatives:
Challenges and Opportunities for the Regulated Professions in Ontario

Notes and references

  • 1. Picot, G. and A. Sweetman. (2012). Making it in Canada: Immigration Outcomes and Policies. IRPP Study No. 29 (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy).
  • 2. Ontario's "fair-access legislation" refers to the Fair Access to Regulated Professions and Compulsory Trades Act, 2006 (FARPACTA), and corresponding provisions in the Regulated Health Professions Act (RHPA).
  • 3. Houle, R. and L. Yssaad. (2010, September). "Recognition of Newcomers' Foreign Credentials and Work Experience." Perspectives on Labour and Income, 11 (9), 18–33.
  • 4. Schuster, A., M. Vincenza Desiderio, and G. Urso (Eds.). (2013). Recognition of Qualifications and Competences of Migrants (Brussels: International Organization for Migration).
  • 5. Hawthorne, L. and A. To. (2012). "The Impact of English Language Testing on Medical Registration Outcomes in Australia — Evidence and Outcomes 2005–2011." Presentation to the International Association of Medical Regulatory Authorities (IAMRA) conference held in Ottawa, October 2–5. Retrieved from http://iamra.com/pdf/IAMRA%20Conference%20-%20October%203/Presentation%20of%20Selected%20Oral%20Abstracts/The%20Impact%20of%20English%20Language%20Testing%20on%20Medical%20Regulation%20Outcomes.pdf
  • 6. Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI). (2012). Making Ontario Home 2012: A Study of Settlement and Integration Services for Immigrants and Refugees. Retrieved from www.ocasi.org/MOH
  • 7. Two sources:
    • Picot, G. and A. Sweetman. (2012). Making it in Canada: Immigration Outcomes and Policies. IRPP Study No. 29 (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy).
    • Policy Roundtable Mobilizing Professions and Trades (PROMPT). (2004, July). In the Public Interest: Immigrant Access to Regulated Professions in Today's Ontario. A PROMPT Policy Paper (Toronto). Retrieved from http://www.cassaonline.com/prompt/Library/Docs/In%20the%20Public%20Interest%20Full.pdf
  • 8. Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative (TIEDI). (2012). Immigrant Transitions from Underemployment to Skills-commensurate Employment. TIEDI Roundtable discussion paper #4.
  • 9. Lowe, S. (2012, July). Transitioning Temporary Foreign Workers to Permanent Residents: A Case for Better Foreign Credential Recognition. CERIS Working Paper No. 91 (Toronto: CERIS — The Ontario Metropolis Centre).
  • 10. Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative (TIEDI). (2012). Immigrant Transitions from Underemployment to Skills-commensurate Employment. TIEDI Roundtable discussion paper #4.
  • 11. Grenier, G. and L. Xue. (2011, May). "Canadian Immigrants' Access to a First Job in Their Intended Occupation." Journal of International Migration and Integration, 12 (3), 275–303.
  • 12. Forum of Labour Market Ministers. (2009). A Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications. Retrieved from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/credential_recognition/docs/pcf.pdf
  • 13. Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration. (2012). A New Direction: Ontario's Immigration Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca/english/keyinitiatives/imm_str/strategy/index.shtml
  • 14. Grenier, G. and L. Xue. (2011, May). "Canadian Immigrants' Access to a First Job in Their Intended Occupation." Journal of International Migration and Integration, 12 (3), 275–303.
  • 15. Two sources:
    • Schittenhelm, K. and O. Schmidtke. (2010, December). "Integrating Highly Skilled Migrants into the Economy: Transatlantic Perspectives." International Journal, 66 (1), 127–143.
    • Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative (TIEDI). (2012). Immigrant Transitions from Underemployment to Skills-commensurate Employment. TIEDI Roundtable discussion paper #4.
  • 16. Three sources:
    • Girard, M. (2010). "Match Between Pre- and Postmigration Education Among New Immigrants: Determinants and Payoffs." Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 40 (3), 81–99.
    • Girard, M. and M. Smith. (2013, May). "Working in a Regulated Occupation in Canada: An Immigrant–Native Born Comparison." Journal of International Migration and Integration, 14 (2), 219–244.
    • Zietsma, D. (2010, February). "Immigrants Working in Regulated Occupations." Perspectives on Labour and Income (Statistics Canada), February 2010, 13–28. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2010102/pdf/11121-eng.pdf
  • 17. Guo, S. and H. Shan. (2013). "Canada." Case study about good practices and recommendations regarding recognition of foreign qualifications. In Schuster, A., M. Vincenza Desiderio, and G. Urso (Eds.), Recognition of Qualifications and Competences of Migrants (Brussels: International Organization for Migration), pp. 229–253.
  • 18. Forum of Labour Market Ministers. (2009). A Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/credential_recognition/docs/pcf.pdf
  • 19. Foreign Credential Referral Office (FCRO), Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2011). Strengthening Canada's Economy — Government of Canada Progress Report 2011 on Foreign Credential Recognition. Retrieved from http://www.credentials.gc.ca/fcro/progress-report2011.asp
  • 20. Two sources:
    • Weeden, K. (2001). "Why Do Some Occupations Pay More Than Others? Social Closure and Earnings Inequality in the United States." American Journal of Sociology, 108(1), 55–101.
    • Witz, A. (1990, November). "Patriarchy and Professions: The Gendered Politics of Occupational Closure." Sociology, 24 (4), 675–690.
  • 21. Freidson, E. (1994). Professionalism Reborn: Theory, Prophecy, and Policy. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press.
  • 22. Non-traditional applicants include both internationally trained applicants and those educated in non-accredited programs within Canada.
  • 23. Mutual recognition initiatives must always consider brain drain and ethical recruiting. Some countries may wish to opt out of mutual recognition.
  • 24. Accreditation typically happens at a national level. Some accreditation systems are bi-national, accrediting programs in both Canada and the United States. A few, such as the accreditation system for veterinary medicine, will also evaluate international programs for accreditation. The program must apply and pay a fee to be considered for accreditation.
  • 25. Only five professions have no profession-specific approval process. Three of these five rely on government regulation of community and career colleges to ensure a minimum level of academic rigour. For the two other professions, for which there are a limited number of known and recognized academic programs in Ontario, the regulator has not established an approval process.
    For accounting professions, applicants can take an accredited program or complete their prescribed course credit requirements later, while working on their professional program.
  • 26. Health professions: Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists, Chiropractors, Dental Technologists, Denturists, Dietitians, Massage Therapists, Medical Radiation Technologists, Nurses, Occupational Therapists, Opticians. Non-health: Early Childhood Educators, Engineering Technicians and Technologists, Engineers, Geoscientists, Land Surveyors, Management Accountants, Social Service Workers, Social Workers.
  • 27. Dental Hygienists, Optometrists, Physiotherapists, Teachers.
  • 28. Architects, Lawyers.
  • 29. When the paralegal profession was first regulated in 2007, the Ministry of the Attorney General insisted on requiring successful completion of an approved paralegal program in Ontario.
  • 30. Chiropodists, Medical Laboratory Technologists, Pharmacists, Pharmacy Technicians, Respiratory Therapists.
  • 31. Health: Dental Surgeons, Midwives, Physicians, Psychologists. Non-health: Chartered Accountants, Foresters, General Accountants, Veterinarians.
  • 32. O. Reg. 202/94, s. 6(1) and 16(1) pursuant to the Pharmacy Act, 1991, S.O. 1991, c. 36.
  • 33. Health: Dental Technologists, Medical Laboratory Technologists, Nurses, Optometrists. Non-health: Early Childhood Educators, Geoscientists, Land Surveyors, Social Service Workers, Social Workers.
  • 34. Dietitians, Opticians, Pharmacists, Pharmacy Technicians, Respiratory Therapists.
  • 35. Architects, Lawyers.
  • 36. Health: Massage Therapists, Midwives. Non-health: Engineers, Teachers.
  • 37. Fair Access to Regulated Professions and Compulsory Trades Act, 2006 (FARPACTA) s. 7.
  • 38. Chiropodists and Denturists.
  • 39. For example, internationally educated nurses have expressed challenges in finding courses that correspond to gaps identified through the Objective Structured Clinical Examination.
  • 40. This pathway has since been suspended because of capacity limitations. The college continues to explore strategies to ensure successful and sustainable alternatives.
  • 41. The OFC has heard direct feedback from bridging participants during site visits.
  • 42. Based on program reports submitted to the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration.
  • 43. Dietitians, Engineers, Midwives, Nurses, Optometrists, Pharmacists, Pharmacy Technicians.
  • 44. Lawyers, Medical Laboratory Technologists, Medical Radiation Technologists, Occupational Therapists, Physiotherapists, Veterinarians.
  • 45. It is possible that individuals from other professional backgrounds have also pursued such opportunities directly with educational institutions. However, some academic programs will not accept applicants who already have a degree in the same discipline.
  • 46. Zietsma, D. (2010, February). "Immigrants Working in Regulated Occupations." Perspectives on Labour and Income (Statistics Canada), February 2010, 13–28. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2010102/pdf/11121-eng.pdf
  • 47. Zietsma, D. (2010, February). See previous note.
  • 48. Public Policy Forum. (2008). Improving Bridging Programs: Compiling Best Practices from a Survey of Canadian Bridging Programs (Ottawa: The Public Policy Forum).
  • 49. Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). (2012). Six Innovations in Allied Health Education. Retrieved from http://www.accc.ca/xp/index.php/en/programs/cdnpartnerships/ahealth/applied-research
  • 50. Zietsma, D. (2010, February). "Immigrants Working in Regulated Occupations." Perspectives on Labour and Income (Statistics Canada), February 2010, 13–28. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2010102/pdf/11121-eng.pdf
  • 51. Guo, S. and H. Shan. (2013). "Canada." Case study about good practices and recommendations regarding recognition of foreign qualifications. In Schuster, A., M. Vincenza Desiderio, and G. Urso (Eds.), Recognition of Qualifications and Competences of Migrants (Brussels: International Organization for Migration), pp. 229–253.
  • 52. Foreign Credential Referral Office (FCRO), Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2012). Strengthening Canada's Economy — Government of Canada Progress Report 2011 on Foreign Credential Recognition. Retrieved from http://www.credentials.gc.ca/fcro/progress-report2011.asp
  • 53. Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration. (2012). Helping Skilled Newcomers Find Jobs. Press release, June 25, 2012.
  • 54. Benzie, R. (2013, July 26). "Premiers to Ottawa: Fix Jobs Program." Toronto Star, p. A10.
  • 55. RBC Economics. (2011, December). "Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes in Canada: The Benefits of Addressing Wage and Employment Gaps." Retrieved from www.rbc.com/newsroom/pdf/1219-2011-immigration.pdf


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Notes and references

    Academic Requirements and Acceptable Alternatives:
    Challenges and Opportunities for the Regulated Professions in Ontario

    Exemplary Practices

    The OFC gathers regulatory bodies' exemplary licensing practices so that they may learn from one another. Exemplary practices about academic requirements and acceptable alternatives are listed below.

    1. Accepting and supporting diverse applicants

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    2. Clarifying documentation requirements and acceptable alternatives

      This practice will be of interest to regulators seeking...

    3. Communicating acceptable alternatives for applicants with non-accredited education

      This practice offers a visual map of pathways to registration...

    4. Communicating acceptable alternatives for meeting certification requirements

      This practice allows applicants to better understand...